Black Jack History

Black Jack History Beschreibung

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Black Jack History

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Black Jack History Video

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Note: where changes in the house edge due to changes in the rules are stated in percentage terms, the difference is usually stated here in percentage points , not percentage.

The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.

The rule variations of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table. You can ask the dealer if the variations are not clearly posted.

Over variations of blackjack have been documented. As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.

This house edge is primarily due to the fact that the player will lose when both the player and dealer bust.

This is not true in games where blackjack pays as that rule increases the house edge by about 1. The expected loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through poor play will be greater, often much greater.

Surrender, for those games that allow it, is usually not permitted against a dealer blackjack; if the dealer's first card is an ace or ten, the hole card is checked to make sure there is no blackjack before surrender is offered.

This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender. The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game.

Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender. For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.

In most non-U. With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of aces against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split.

In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for. For instance, holding 11 against a dealer 10, the correct strategy is to double in a hole card game where the player knows the dealer's second card is not an ace , but to hit in a no hole card game.

The no hole card rule adds approximately 0. The "original bets only" rule variation appearing in certain no hole card games states that if the player's hand loses to a dealer blackjack, only the mandatory initial bet "original" is forfeited, and all optional bets, meaning doubles and splits, are pushed.

Each blackjack game has a basic strategy , which prescribes the optimal method of playing any hand against any dealer up-card so that the long-term house advantage the expected loss of the player is minimized.

An example of a basic strategy is shown in the table below, which applies to a game with the following specifications: [10].

The bulk of basic strategy is common to all blackjack games, with most rule variations calling for changes in only a few situations.

For example, to use the table above on a game with the stand on soft 17 rule which favors the player, and is typically found only at higher-limit tables today only 6 cells would need to be changed: hit on 11 vs.

A, hit on 15 vs. A, stand on 17 vs. A, stand on A,7 vs. Regardless of the specific rule variations, taking insurance or "even money" is never the correct play under basic strategy.

Estimates of the house edge for blackjack games quoted by casinos and gaming regulators are generally based on the assumption that the players follow basic strategy and do not systematically change their bet size.

Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0. Casino promotions such as complimentary match play vouchers or blackjack payouts allow the player to acquire an advantage without deviating from basic strategy.

Basic strategy is based upon a player's point total and the dealer's visible card. Players may be able to improve on this decision by considering the precise composition of their hand, not just the point total.

For example, players should ordinarily stand when holding 12 against a dealer 4. However, in a single deck game, players should hit if their 12 consists of a 10 and a 2.

The presence of a 10 in the player's hand has two consequences: [11]. However, even when basic and composition-dependent strategy lead to different actions, the difference in expected reward is small, and it becomes even smaller with more decks.

Using a composition-dependent strategy rather than basic strategy in a single deck game reduces the house edge by 4 in 10,, which falls to 3 in , for a six-deck game.

Blackjack has been a high-profile target for advantage players since the s. Advantage play is the attempt to win more using skills such as memory, computation, and observation.

These techniques, while generally legal, can be powerful enough to give the player a long-term edge in the game, making them an undesirable customer for the casino and potentially leading to ejection or blacklisting if they are detected.

The main techniques of advantage play in blackjack are as follows:. During the course of a blackjack shoe, the dealer exposes the dealt cards.

Careful accounting of the exposed cards allows a player to make inferences about the cards which remain to be dealt.

These inferences can be used in the following ways:. A card counting system assigns a point score to each rank of card e.

When a card is exposed, a counter adds the score of that card to a running total, the 'count'. A card counter uses this count to make betting and playing decisions according to a table which they have learned.

The count starts at 0 for a freshly shuffled deck for "balanced" counting systems. Unbalanced counts are often started at a value which depends on the number of decks used in the game.

Blackjack's house edge is usually between 0. Card counting is most rewarding near the end of a complete shoe when as few as possible cards remain.

Single-deck games are therefore particularly advantageous to the card counting player. As a result, casinos are more likely to insist that players do not reveal their cards to one another in single-deck games.

In games with more decks of cards, casinos limit penetration by ending the shoe and reshuffling when one or more decks remain undealt.

Casinos also sometimes use a shuffling machine to reintroduce the exhausted cards every time a deck has been played. Card counting is legal and is not considered cheating as long as the counter is not using an external device, [14] : 6—7 but if a casino realizes players are counting, the casino might inform them that they are no longer welcome to play blackjack.

Sometimes a casino might ban a card counter from the property. The use of external devices to help counting cards is illegal in all US states that license blackjack card games.

Techniques other than card counting can swing the advantage of casino blackjack toward the player. All such techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino as originally conceived by Edward O.

Shuffle tracking requires excellent eyesight and powers of visual estimation but is more difficult to detect since the player's actions are largely unrelated to the composition of the cards in the shoe.

Arnold Snyder's articles in Blackjack Forum magazine brought shuffle tracking to the general public. His book, The Shuffle Tracker's Cookbook, mathematically analyzed the player edge available from shuffle tracking based on the actual size of the tracked slug.

Jerry L. Patterson also developed and published a shuffle-tracking method for tracking favorable clumps of cards and cutting them into play and tracking unfavorable clumps of cards and cutting them out of play.

The player can also gain an advantage by identifying cards from distinctive wear markings on their backs, or by hole carding observing during the dealing process the front of a card dealt face down.

These methods are generally legal although their status in particular jurisdictions may vary. Many blackjack tables offer a side bet on various outcomes including: [22].

The side wager is typically placed in a designated area next to the box for the main wager. A player wishing to wager on a side bet is usually required to place a wager on blackjack.

Some games require that the blackjack wager should equal or exceed any side bet wager. A non-controlling player of a blackjack hand is usually permitted to place a side bet regardless of whether the controlling player does so.

The house edge for side bets is generally far higher than for the blackjack game itself. Nonetheless side bets can be susceptible to card counting.

A side count, designed specifically for a particular side bet, can improve the player edge. Only a few side bets, like "Lucky Ladies", offer a sufficient win rate to justify the effort of advantage play.

In team play it is common for team members to be dedicated toward counting only a sidebet using a specialized count.

Blackjack can be played in tournament form. Players start with an equal numbers of chips; the goal is to finish among the top chip-holders.

Depending on the number of competitors, tournaments may be held over several rounds, with one or two players qualifying from each table after a set number of deals to meet the qualifiers from the other tables in the next round.

Another tournament format, Elimination Blackjack , drops the lowest-stacked player from the table at pre-determined points in the tournament.

Good strategy for blackjack tournaments can differ from non-tournament strategy because of the added dimension of choosing the amount to be wagered.

As in poker tournaments, players pay the casino an initial entry fee to participate in a tournament, and re-buys are sometimes permitted.

Some casinos, as well as general betting outlets, provide blackjack among a selection of casino-style games at electronic consoles.

Video blackjack game rules are generally more favorable to the house; e. Video and online blackjack games generally deal each round from a fresh shoe i.

Blackjack is a member of a large family of traditional card games played recreationally all around the world. Most of these games have not been adapted for casino play.

Furthermore, the casino game development industry is very active in producing blackjack variants, most of which are ultimately not adopted for widespread use in casinos.

The following are the prominent twenty-one themed comparing card games which have been adapted or invented for use in casinos and have become established in the gambling industry.

An ace can only count as eleven, but two aces count as a blackjack. It is mostly played in private circles and barracks. A British variation is called "Pontoon", the name being probably a corruption of "Vingt-et-un".

Blackjack is also featured in various television shows. Here are a few shows inspired by the game. In , professional gamblers around the world were invited to nominate great blackjack players for admission into the Blackjack Hall of Fame.

Seven members were inducted in , with new people inducted every year after. Members include Edward O. Thorp , author of the s book Beat the Dealer which proved that the game could be beaten with a combination of basic strategy and card counting ; Ken Uston , who popularized the concept of team play; Arnold Snyder , author and editor of the Blackjack Forum trade journal; Stanford Wong , author and popularizer of the "Wonging" technique of only playing at a positive count, and several others.

Novels have been written around blackjack and the possibility of winning games via some kind of method. An almost identical theme was shown in the Canadian film The Last Casino.

In The Hangover , an American comedy, four friends try to count cards to win back enough money to secure the release of their friend from the clutches of a notorious criminal they stole from the previous night while blacked out.

A central part of the plot of Rain Man is that Raymond Dustin Hoffman , an autistic savant , is able to win at blackjack by counting cards.

This movie displays different blackjack lingo and risky moves that have high rewards. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the gambling game.

For the shedding-type card game sometimes called Black Jack, see Switch card game. For other uses, see Black Jack. Gambling card game. Blackjack example game.

Main article: Advantage player. Main article: Card counting. Main article: Shuffle tracking. Main article: Blackjack Hall of Fame.

Scarne's new complete guide to gambling Fully rev. Barcelona: Flor del Viento Ediciones. Journal of the American Statistical Association.

However, soon after, dealers began to follow the mandatory blackjack rules, where they would hit up to 16, and stand on 17 or above. Owing to various gambling bans in France, the game did not develop and spread further in the 19th century.

Whereas during this time, the game flourished and gained increasing popularity in America. The first legalised and house banked games were seen in New Orleans in Yet non legalised, player banked games were common elsewhere across the country.

The tale of Eleanor Dumont comes from this time. Born in France, she immigrated to America at a young age.

She was a skilled card dealer and she banked and dealt the game to any player, with any stake. She made a living moving from place to place, and in Nevada City, California, she opened a gambling parlour on Broad street, named Vingt-et-un.

Only rich and well to do men were permitted to enter, with no women allowed. Men travelled from all across the country to play against this female dealer — which was a rarity at the time.

Eleanor flirted with the men to keep them coming back for more, however, she kept her distance from them. She experienced much success in her business venture, until the gold rush ended.

After this, she went back to travelling the country as a dealer, trying to build up her wealth. She was found dead on September 8th, in Bodie California.

It is believed she owed a lot of money, and consequently took her own life. The game was still called 21 when it gained popularity in Nevada, following the state legalisation of gambling in In order to attract more players, some casinos offered a special payout of , when a player made 21 points with the ace of spades and one of the black jacks i.

Along with the legalisation of gambling came a need for clear, standardised game rules. It is these rules, as defined by the Nevada Gaming Commission which are mostly still used nowadays.

It was not until around that the first blackjack card counters appeared. Yet even before this time, there were probably some players that used such tactics to eliminate the house edge.

One famous name is Jess Marcum, whose playing strategy saw him kicked out of numerous casinos. There were interesting characters with unique names like System Smitty and Greasy John.

In the book, the authors Baldwin, Cantey, Maisel and McDermott included a basic strategy to keep track of the cards and reduce the house edge.

This book was a huge success, and is still today considered to be the birth of card counting. However, this system worked at the time when the game was played with a single deck.

Nowadays, blackjack is played with numerous decks. This makes the system very complex to use. Say for example you tried to use the system to count cards in an 8 deck game.

You would need to count down from and in your head, making it much more complicated. The casinos took action to try and fight back against the card counting tactics, that had the potential to eradicate the house edge, and consequently their profits.

One adaptation was to increase the number of decks used in a game from 1 to 2. Not long after, they increased it further to 4 deck games.

Also, the shoe was not played through completely, with dealers shuffling the deck when there were many cards still left.

At the same time, the casinos added more blackjack tables, to cater to the surge of new players that wanted to try their luck at winning using these new card counting strategies.

However, this ultimately benefited the casinos rather than the players, as many lacked the talent, patience or perseverance to win using card counting.

With the help of computers, blackjack players were now able to quickly adapt their strategies to any changes implemented by the casinos.

Yet around this time, casinos openly embraced card counters. They wanted to ensure that players would keep coming back for more, boosting their profits.

In fact, dealers and pit bosses would even hand out basic strategy tables and offer advice on the ideal move to play in a difficult situation.

Overall, this approach led players into a false sense of security, as in the long run, the house still won. Yet there were still some players who were experts at card counting, and had the potential to leave the casino out of pocket.

It was here that private detective Robert Griffin saw an opportunity to benefit. He published a book with the pictures of suspected card counters, and sold it to all the casinos, which they welcomed with open arms.

This enabled the casinos to take a more strategic approach to defeating card counters. Rather than assessing and monitoring all players, they could concentrate their efforts on known culprits.

This approach worked well for the casinos, until team strategies began to emerge. In , Al Francesco was a blackjack player who would count cards.

He tried to find a way to avoid being detected when using such a strategy. His brother would play and Al Francesco would simply stand beside the table and have a conversation.

His brother counted the cards, and when he detected an advantage for the player, he would place a big bet. This extravagant betting style drew the attention of the pit boss.

However, rather than kicking him out of the casino, the casino was oblivious to his tactics and he was offered a free room.

After this experience, the idea came to him to train other players to count and signal him in, so he could play with the biggest stakes and minimal risk.

Al Francesco was banned from all casinos following the publication of the book. Ken Uston was also banned, however, he went on to file a lawsuit against an Atlantic City casino in , claiming that casinos do not have a right to bar skilled players.

The commission made no such ruling. As such, the casinos went on to employ increased countermeasures against card counting. These included increasing the number of decks used to 8, and shuffling the cards in the shoe much earlier than done previously.

Their series of countermeasures ensured that the casino maintained its house edge. Today, it is still possible in theory to use card counting to overcome the house edge.

However, the profits to be gained are minimal in relation to the capital required. At the same time, dealers and floor managers are highly trained to identify any potential card counters.

However, card counting is still not illegal nowadays, owing to the ruling by the New Jersey Supreme Court.

Despite all the measures taken by casinos to detect and prevent card counters, blackjack continued to be one of the most popular card games played at casinos in Las Vegas and throughout the world.

With the boom of the internet, the next big development in the history of blackjack arrived. The first online casinos provided the classic standard version of the game.

But very soon after, there were a wide variety of game variants that could be played online, with different rules and unusual and innovative features.

Nowadays, there are hundreds of different blackjack games , with various rules and names to go with them. There are also games with progressive jackpots.

There are even some new games which change the game play itself.

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Black Jack History Inhaltsverzeichnis

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Some say the game traces its roots to back to the French game "vingt-et-un" 21 , which was popular in French casinos in the 17th century.

Others believe the history of blackjack started from Italy, as an Italian game "Thirty one" appeared a lot earlier, in the 13th century. Let's find out all about these games.

The Italian game "Thirty One" has lots of similarities with the current game of blackjack, though the aim of it was to get a hand totaling 31 from 3 cards.

The fact the game appeared in the XIV century makes this game the first predecessor of blackjack as we know it today. The first time this game was mentioned was in an anti-gaming sermon by an Italian monk - St.

Bernardine of Siena. This sermon led to public burnings of dice, cards and backgammon boards. This sermon dates back to Fun Fact: The first deck of cards was printed by Johan Guttenberg , also famous for printing the first Bibles.

The deck had 22 trumps and 4 suits of 14 cards. The game "Thirty One" was also mentioned in the classic and famous work by Francois Rabelais - "Gargantua and Pantagruel".

The reference dates back to between and The game was then mentioned in one of the stories of the famous Spanish writer - Miguel de Cervantes , where he described a great blackjack, or "Trentuno", cheat.

The story was called "Riconete and Cortadillo" and was published in , which is over years later than the first mention of 31 in Bernardine's sermon.

Another Italian game of the 17th century brought lots of features that make blackjack today the way we know and love it. The Italian game "Seven and a Half" was very popular entertainment pastime with some similarities with the game of blackjack you will definitely notice.

According to the rules of the game, it was played with only 8's, 9's, 10's and face cards. The King of diamonds in the game was considered as a wild card.

Any player that received a total higher than 7. The dealer unlike in modern blackjack, was allowed to hit and stand when he wanted. But in those thirty years, there were players who thought about the game and how to play it best.

Many of them are referenced by those who came after them and explored the facets of the game after them. There was Jess Marcum, kicked out by many a beaten and confused casino who may have been beating blackjack by counting cards before There were colorful characters with names like System Smitty and Greasy John.

Four players Baldwin, Cantey, Maisel, McDermott wrote a book Playing Blackjack to Win with explicit reference to a basic strategy and to keeping track of cards as a way to tilt the game in your favor.

In mathematician Roger Baldwin and his associates made the first attempt at applying statistical theory to the turn of the card in blackjack.

This is considered the first strategy guide to playing blackjack. Armed with this as background, in Edward O.

Thorp had used new probability calculations and the equivalent of an early computer to come up with a system to improve the odds of winning by counting the cards in a blackjack game.

This strategy proved to be a bust when gamblers in droves boycotted the casinos, especially those in Las Vegas, for changing the rules.

The irony of the casinos fear was that Thorpe had put the game on blackjack top of mind as the hottest thing to do in a casino.

Although a flood of players washed into the casinos armed with the information that the game could be beaten, most were not willing, patient, talented, practiced enough or funded enough to actually do it.

In the law of large numbers the new customers made the casinos keep winning big.. Atlantic City Opens its Doors.

The first Atlantic City casino, Resorts International, opened its doors in A favorable early surrender rule resulted in a crush of players, including players from these newly formed teams.

Even though the casino was making money hand over fist, they wrestled over how to deal with counters. In , Ken Uston won a lawsuit against Atlantic City casinos.

The New Jersey casinos could no longer kick out players by law, but it only empowered them to resort to constant suspicion, as well as half-shoeing and shuffling tactics.

During the s, no blackjack player drew more attention or won more money than Ken Uston. Uston was introduced to the concept of team play in blackjack by another gambler, Al Francesco, who taught Uston how to count cards.

Eventually Uston put together his own blackjack teams, using computers placed in their shoes to help count cards and compute probabilities.

Uston himself had to resort to a myriad of disguises to get by casino security after he was listed in the famous or infamous Griffin Books, a series of volumes containing photographs and information on professional gamblers, cheats and card counters.

This legendary group of players grew out of student games at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and became one of the all-time greatest group of winners in blackjack history.

Indian Casinos and State-Approved Casinos come on board. In Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, which effectively gave tribes the right to build and regulate their own casinos.

Tribes across the country began getting into the gaming business. Meanwhile, states started getting in on the lucrative action.

In the Midwest, they began opening riverboat and shoreline casinos to step around traditional restrictions and create gambling zones.

By creating a state gaming agency and offering individual cities the opportunity to decide for themselves whether they wanted to open casinos that would be limited in size and scope,.

Blackjack Today. This story is still being written. Today, blackjack is a worldwide game and the proliferation of casinos continue to support it life.

Home Blackjack-history. In Vingt-et-un the Ace could be 1 or 11 which has carried on to the modern game As you can see, the game of Vingt-et-un is similar to blackjack game, therefore it is mostly considered to be the true predecessor of modern Blackjack.

The game was loved by the French elite and was even played by the mistress of the king Louis All in All In the absence of hard facts, some researchers believe this game has derived from other similar French games, however those games are based on accurate and well-balanced calculations.

Indian Casinos and State-Approved Casinos come on board In Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, which effectively gave tribes the right to build and regulate their own casinos.

By creating a state gaming agency and offering individual cities the opportunity to decide for themselves whether they wanted to open casinos that would be limited in size and scope, Blackjack Today This story is still being written.

Stay tuned. Join Our Mailing List Join our mailing list to stay up to date and get notices about our new releases! Fuelling its popularity the online casino industry has developed various versions of the game which has truly revolutionized it.

Now a few reputed casino operators have started an innovative and far more enjoyable concept of this game: live blackjack game with real dealers.

Live Blackjack is the most advanced way to play your favourite casino game right in the comfort of your home, without having to go a long way to a field-based casino.

Wikipedia: Blackjack. First Name. Last Name.

Das Spiel hat dieselben Regeln wie das moderne Blackjack und wurde in fast allen Kasinos im Land gespielt. Ass und Zehn jedoch nicht als Black Jacksondern als 21 Punkte, da die Kartenkombination nicht mit Yugioh Online Spielen Deutsch ersten beiden Karten erzielt wurde. So ist z. If you have any questions or suggestions, please contact us using the app. Der am 2.

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